Die alte Stadt von Terebovlia
The ancient town of Terebovlia (Trembowla / Terebovla)is well known from the annals as the center of the separate principality, that soon become a component of the Galitsko-Volinsk land. Actually, the unite of the Terebovlia and Peremishliansko-Zvenigorod principalities resulted in creation of Galitskiy principality with the capital in Galich.
The main function of Terebovlshchina in this period was the protection of east borders of Galichina. In 1211 the Terebovl prince throne was occupied by Iziaslav, the son of the Siversk prince Volodimir Igorevich, but on not long period of time. At that year in one of the battles against the Hungarians, which happened near Terebovlia, Iziaslav Volodimirovich was defeated, captured and soon was killed together with his father and brothers. Thirty years later, in 1241, Terebovlia was completely destroyed by the forces of Batiy. In 1349 the town was included into the structure of Polish kingdom.
Since 1366 began the rebuilding of the castle in Terebovlia, which was reconstructed from the wooden strengthening of the XI-XII centuries. This castle was precisely “attached” to a relief of a district, and that’s why it had the wrong form (by the way, as a fortress in Kamenets, Buchach or Jazlovets). The castle buildings are locate on a plateau of a very high and forbidding mountain, which hangs above the town. The walls are made of a stones and it thickness is 4 -5 meters. At the edge of a mountain there is a huge tower, others three are located on opposite parties.
The castle is quasi “increase” the mountain and looks very majestic. The walls had internal wooden military galleries; embrasures are rather typical for Podillia - with two or three crossed ways. The entrance to the castle was made in a form of arch and situated on east wall. On the external part it was equipped by the barbakan. The castle in Terebovlia – is a typical sample of thedefensive architecture of Western Podillia, which developed during XVIth –the first half of XVIIth centuries. With the creation in 1434 the Russian Province, Terebovlia became the povite town, where the large fairs were organized. Except for revival of the economic life it has resulted to the systematic raids of the Tatars.
In 1453 the great battle was happened near Terebovlia, in which the Head of Zinkiv Jan Lashch together with the Heads of Medzhibizh and Letichiv Mateush and Jan Nimets defeated a large Tatar army. However, soon Jan Lashch was killed in the fight, and the raids did not stop. The most devastating attacks are fixed in 1498, 1508, 1515, 1516. It resulted the temporary decline of Terebovlia.
The new activity began in the beginning of XVIIth century. The economy revived, in 1631 the castle in Terebovlia was rebuilt and is reconstructed. The inhabitants of Terebovlia took active participation in the events of Liberation War and even could create a small army, which begun active military actions.In March, 1649 the army of Terebovlia was defeated by the crown army. In the 50’s of the XVIIth century Terebovlia became one ofthe centers of the Oprishkiv movement. In 1657 the Oprishki tried to take the urban castle.
However the most difficult times for Terebovlia came on the end of the XVIIth century. In 1675 the Turkish army destroyed town and laid the siege of the castle during one week (but they couldn’t take it). In 1688 the town endured a new destructive attack. The castle in Terebovlia was destroyed and was not reconstructed any more. Nowadays the rests of the castle buildings require the state care and significant reconstruction.